Research Roundup


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Debbie Rigby rounds up the latest in research news 

Changes in pain intensity after discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain

Pain intensity after discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy does not, on average, worsen for patients and may slightly improve, particularly for patients with mild-to-moderate pain at the time of discontinuation. This retrospective study of 551 patients over 24 months after discontinuation of opioids should support patient discussion on the risks of opioid therapy and potnetial benefits of opioid taper.

Pain 2018;159:2097-104.

 

Association between serum vitamin D levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in the adult population of the USA

This study of nearly 2000 participants aged 20 to 49 years found an independent and robust association between serum vitamin D levels and cardiorespiratory fitness. CRF refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity. The mean age of participants was 33 years with a mean vitamin D Level of 58 nmol/L. Participants in the highest quartile of vitamin D levels had a significantly higher cardiorespiratory fitness as measured by maximal oxygen consumption than participants in the lowest quartile.

European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, first published October 30, 2018.

 

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in the elderly

One third of elderly patients with vertigo are diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common cause of dizziness. This review presents current insights into the diagnostic, pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects of BPPV in the elderly. In general, vestibular suppressants (antihistamines, benzodiazepines and anticholinergics) and antiemetic medications are not recommended in the treatment of BPPV.

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2018:13 2251–66.

 

Pantoprazole in Patients at Risk for Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the ICU

Prophylaxis for gastrointestinal stress ulceration is frequently given to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this trial involving adult patients who were admitted to the ICU for an acute condition and were at risk for gastrointestinal bleeding, there was no significant differences between pantoprazole and placebo with regard to either 90-day mortality or the number of patients with a composite outcome of four clinically important events (gastrointestinal bleeding, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, or myocardial ischemia).

N Engl J Med, published on October 24, 2018.

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