Research Roundup

Debbie Rigby rounds up the latest in research news

Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for type 2 diabetes

A large systematic review and network meta-analysis of 764 randomised controlled trials has concluded that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes, with notable differences in benefits and harms. Absolute benefits are determined by individual risk profiles of patients.

BMJ 2021;372:m4573.


Association of Oily and Nonoily Fish Consumption and Fish Oil Supplements With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

A large population-based prospective study has found that consumption of oily fish was associated with a lower risk of T2D. Consumption of non-oily fish was not associated with risk of T2D. Use of fish oil supplements, especially constant use over time, was also associated with a lower risk of T2D.


Diabetes Care 2021;dc202328.


The effect of vitamin D supplementation on acute respiratory tract infection in older Australian adults

The D-Health Trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of monthly vitamin D supplementation (60,000IU) in people aged 60 to79 years. Participants were asked to report occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms over the previous month via annual surveys, and a subset of participants completed 8-week respiratory symptom diaries in winter. The findings suggest that routine vitamin D supplementation of a population that is largely vitamin D replete is unlikely to have a clinically relevant effect on acute respiratory tract infection.

Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2021.


A Difficult Pill to Swallow: An Investigation of the Factors Associated with Medication Swallowing Difficulties

In sample of 152 healthy adults, 32% reported difficulty swallowing tablets or capsules whole. A combination of heightened oral perception characterized by a small oral cavity and high taste sensitivity compounded by a past choking episode on medications were found to be precipitating factors for medication swallowing difficulties. No associations were found between medication swallowing difficulties and the gag reflex or food neophobia.

Patient Preference and Adherence 2021;15:29–40.

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