Debbie Rigby takes a look at the latest research news
A long-term study of 10 years with 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45–84 years) has shown high total calcium intake is associated with a decreased risk of incident atherosclerosis over long‐term follow‐up, particularly if achieved without supplement use. Those with the highest calcium intake (more than 1,400mg/day) were found to be 27% less likely than the lowest intake group (less than 400mg/day) to develop heart disease. However, calcium supplement use may increase the risk for incident coronary artery calcification.
J Am Heart Assoc. 2016; 5: e003815.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and prospective cohort and nested case–control studies with data on dietary or supplemental intake of calcium, with or without vitamin D, has concluded calcium intake within tolerable upper intake levels (2000 to 2500 mg/d) is not associated with CVD risk in generally healthy adults. Although a few trials and cohort studies reported increased risks with higher calcium intake, risk estimates in most of those studies were small (±10% relative risk) and not considered clinically important, even if they were statistically significant.
Ann Intern Med. 2016.
This scientific statement from the American Heart Association provides a series of tables of clinically significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of medications commonly used with statins. The document suggests a review of all medications that statin-treated patients are taking should be done at each clinical encounter and during transitions of care within a health system so that drug-drug interactions can be identified early, evaluated, and managed appropriately by implementing doses adjustments, changing to a safer statin medication, or discontinuing when needed.
A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been found to significantly reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet is best implemented in two phases: initial strict elimination of foods high in FODMAPs, then gradual reintroduction based on symptoms. Further study of this diet’s effect on intestinal microbiota is needed.
CCJM 2016 Sep;83(9):655-662.