Debbie Rigby takes a look around at the latest in research news 

Effect of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal disorders

This systematic review explored more recently published meta-analyses and randomised trials on vitamin D supplementation. Recent meta-analyses reinforce the finding that 10–20 μg per day of vitamin D can reduce all-cause mortality and cancer mortality in middle-aged and older people. The main new finding highlighted by this systematic review is that vitamin D supplementation might help to prevent common upper respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations.

Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2017

 

Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence

Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells. There is high-quality evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and necrotizing enterocolitis.

Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(3):170-178.

 

Long-term proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer development after treatment for Helicobacter pylori

This study conducted on more than 63,000 participants in Hong Kong found an association between PPI use and the risk of gastric cancer. PPI use was associated with 2.44 times increased risk, while H2Ras was not associated with an increased risk. The risk increased with duration of PPI use. The adjusted absolute risk difference for PPIs versus non-PPIs use was 4.29 excess GC per 10 000 person-years.

Gut 2017.

Medscape summary

 

The Efficacy and Safety of the Use of Non-Vitamin-K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation and Concomitant Aspirin Therapy

A meta-analysis of 4 RCTs has concluded that direct acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be safer and more effective to use than warfarin to treat patients with non-valvular AF and concomitant aspirin therapy. DOACs were more effective for stroke and systemic embolism prevention and vascular death. They were as safe as warfarin for major bleeding and safer with respect to the reduction of intracranial haemorrhage.

Circulation. Originally published November 3, 2017.